Picture two charged particles in a vacuum. Thanks to laws of elementary electrostatics, we can easily calculate the force these particles exert upon one another, and therefore predict their movements.
A cornerstone of physics may require a rethink if findings at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are confirmed. Recent experiments suggest* that the most rigorous predictions based on the fundamental theory of electromagnetism—one of the four fundamental forces in the universe, and harnessed in all electronic devices—may not accurately account for the behavior of atoms in exotic, highly charged states.
A jet of X-rays from a supermassive black hole 12.4 billion light years from Earth has been detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This is the most distant X-ray jet ever observed and gives astronomers a glimpse into the explosive activity associated with the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe.
Astronomers have used the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at The University of Texas at Austin's McDonald Observatory to measure the mass of what may be the most massive black hole yet — 17 billion times our sun’s mass — in galaxy NGC 1277. The unusual black hole makes up 14 percent of its galaxy's mass, rather than the usual 0.1 percent. This galaxy and several more in the same study could change theories about how black holes and galaxies form and evolve. The work will appear in the journal Nature on Nov. 29.
Quasars are the intensely luminous centres of distant galaxies that are powered by huge black holes. This new study has looked at one of these energetic objects – known as SDSS J1106+1939 – in great detail, using the X-shooter instrument on ESO's VLT at the Paranal Observatory in Chile . Although black holes are noted for pulling material in, most quasars also accelerate some of the material around them and eject it at high speed.
Researcher at EPFL proves that the strong electric charge observed at the interface between oil and water is not due to impurities
Properties of several of the most external atomic layers of materials can be studied at Mazovia Centre for Surface Analysis by a number of modern techniques. Just opened at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, the Centre provides a spectrum of surface analysis tools including a state-of-the-art scanning electron microscope and specialised spectroscopic equipment for surface studies in high and ultra high vacuum.
Among the most important techniques developed in atomic physics over the past few years are methods that enable the storage and cooling of atoms and ions at temperatures just above absolute zero. Scientists from Bangalore and Mainz have now demonstrated in an experiment that captured ions can also be cooled through contact with cold atoms and may thus be stored in so-called ion traps in a stable condition for longer periods of time. This finding runs counter to predictions that ions would actually be heated through collisions with atoms.
Neutron scattering is a specialized tool that allows scientists to do breakthrough research into the nature of advanced materials.
Collisions between protons and lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have produced surprising behavior in some of the particles created by the collisions. The new observation suggests the collisions may have produced a new type of matter known as color-glass condensate.
Quantum computers are devices — still largely theoretical — that could perform certain types of computations much faster than classical computers; one way they might do that is by exploiting “spin,” a property of tiny particles of matter. A “spin chain,” in turn, is a standard model that physicists use to describe systems of quantum particles, including some that could be the basis for quantum computers.
For the first time, scientists have succeeded in controlling molecules so precisely that the quantum effects of a collision between molecules can be measured. The results will be published in Science on November 23rd. The ar [bw] ticle also provides a theoretical model of the interaction between the OH (hydroxyl) and NO (nitrogen monoxide) molecules used. Molecule collisions were previously thought to be too complex to model.
Experiments could search for a 'twin peak' to gain insight into the peculiar phenomenon of wave localisation, CQT researchers and their collaborators have predicted.
Sandia’s one-of-a-kind multiphase shock tube began with a hallway conversation that led to what engineer Justin Wagner describes as the only shock tube in the world that can look at how shock waves interact with dense particle fields.
Geoscientists, particle physicists and engineers will work together to examine the potential of using muons -sub-atomic particles from cosmic rays- which cascade from the upper atmosphere and go on to penetrate rock several kilometres underground. The detection of cosmic ray muons can be used to map the density profile of the material above the detectors and hence measure on-going levels of CO2 in any potential carbon store.