Quantum teleportation, which enables the non-local communication of an unknown quantum state, remains one of the most significant protocols in quantum information and quantum technology nearly thirty years after it was first proposed.
Quantum teleportation is effectively utilized to bypass the spatial quantum restriction for applications concerning quantum communication. This article focuses on the recent research and advances taking place in different fields utilizing quantum teleportation.
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The Phenomenon of Quantum Teleportation
Quantum teleportation is the long-distance transmission of an unexplained quantum state. This process necessitates entanglement, so it cannot be emulated with conventional channels.
In practice, a single particle has multiple degrees of freedom, resulting in a complex quantum state. Such states necessitate intricate entanglement preparation and Bell-state measurements for quantum teleportation.
In 1993, a group of scientists led by Bennet published a research paper that laid the basis for quantum teleportation. In 1997, a group of scientists under the guidance of Anton Zeilinger were able to provide experimental proof of quantum teleportation.
Recent Uses of Quantum Teleportation in Semiconductor Chips
Researchers from China have most recently published an article in arXiv:2302.08756 [quant-ph] focusing on how quantum teleportation affects the quantum information sciences, particularly semiconducting chips. Quantum teleportation has been utilized in several tangible systems, with superconducting qubits emerging as the dominant technology to realize large-scale quantum computing. However, the available processor dimensions and cooling power severely restrict the number of superconducting qubits on a single chip.
A critical quantum communication technique is the execution of quantum teleportation and isolated computation over qubits on distant superconducting computers. The researchers demonstrated deterministic teleportation of quantum states and entangled gates between remote superconducting processors linked by a 64-meter-long cable bus with an ultralow loss of 0.32 dB/km at cryogenic temperatures.
In addition to the fundamental interest of quantum teleportation of superconducting qubits over a long distance, this research has laid the groundwork for the establishment of large-scale superconducting quantum computing via a distributed computational network.
Advances in the Analysis of Complexity of Quantum Teleportation
Quantum computing is inextricably linked to quantum communication. When two or more parties share an entangled quantum state via quantum teleportation, they can transmit a message using the entangled circuit.
The researchers analyzed the teleportation of a single-qubit message in IET Quantum Communication through various entangled pathways, including the two-qubit Bell and the three-qubit GHZ channel. Other entangled states included the two/three-qubit cluster states, the highly entangled five-qubit state, and the six-qubit state. The impacts incurred via the utilization of six different noise models and quantum costs were recorded. A circuit's quantum cost is the quantity of primordial reversible gates used in its design.
Observations revealed that the quantum cost escalated as the number of qubits in entangled pathways grew. Quantum cost may reflect the computationally complex nature of a reversible gate, so the bigger the quantum cost, the greater the complexity of quantum teleportation.
The average quantum cost was identical for the two-qubit cluster state channel and the three-qubit GHZ channel. In the case of quantum teleportation of a five-qubit state, it was discovered that the effect of the depolarizing noise model coincided with that of the phase-flip noise model, which was an additional observation of interest.
Quantum teleportation was the most affected by amplitude damping, phase damping, and depolarizing noise models.
What Progress is Taking Place in the Application of Quantum Teleportation for Commuting Operator Frameworks?
As per the latest article published, Instead of performing quantum teleportation of a complete system, it may be preferable to teleport quantum data embedded into subsystems of a complete system or even hybrid varieties of classical and quantum data. This may occur, for example, with subsystem codes employed in quantum algorithms and fault-tolerant quantum computing architectures.
The authors broadened the notion of quantum teleportation to include semi-finite von Neumann algebras in a more general scenario. These mathematical structures characterize a set of operators in a particular space. It was determined how well these teleportation schemes function in this broader context by analyzing fundamental concepts such as tightness and related properties.
An unbiased quantum teleportation scheme applied to particular quantum inclusion classes for the analysis of specific subalgebras called N, which are subalgebras of matrix algebras Mn(C) was utilized for studying quantum properties. Any tight quantum teleportation algorithm for the subalgebra N is associated with an orthonormal continuous Pimsner-Popa foundation of the matrix algebra Mn(C) over the relative commutant N', as demonstrated by the authors. This foundation provides a structured collection of elements that facilitate comprehension and analysis of the teleportation process.
Progress in Efficiency Determination
The latest research paper in Scientific Reports focuses on the determination of quantum efficiency of the process of quantum teleportation in a noisy channel via the utilization of GHZ state. In terms of amplitude-damping noise resistance, the study indicates that the W1 state is superior to the GHZ state for teleportation over the same period. Using WM (weak measurement) and RM (reverse quantum calculation), the researchers also considered the effectiveness of quantum teleportation. The W1 state was less susceptible to amplitude-damping noise.
Quantum teleportation has progressed from an abstract notion to an active area of investigation and experimentation. It has significant repercussions for quantum communication, computation, and technological networks. Quantum teleportation is anticipated to play a pivotal role in influencing the future of numerous scientific and technological domains, presenting possibilities for creativity and discoveries that are unparalleled.
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References and Further Reading
Science Daily, 2023. Long-distance quantum teleportation enabled by multiplexed quantum memories. [Online]
Available at: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2023/04/230419095523.htm
Qiu, J. et. al. (2023). Deterministic quantum teleportation between distant superconducting chips. arXiv preprint arXiv:2302.08756. Available at: https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2302.08756
Singh, D., Kumar, S., & Behera, B. K. (2023). Complexity analysis of quantum teleportation via different entangled channels in the presence of noise. IET Quantum Communication, 4(1), 1-16. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1049/qtc2.12048
Zhang, C. Y. et. al. (2023). The efficiency of quantum teleportation with three-qubit entangled state in a noisy environment. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 3756. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-30561-8
Conlon, A. et. al. (2023). Quantum teleportation in the commuting operator framework. In Annales Henri Poincaré (Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 1779-1821). Cham: Springer International Publishing.Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00023-022-01255-0