Editorial Feature

What is Quantum Geometry?

Quantum geometry is a crucial area of research in the theory of quantum information, and it deals with geometrical forms in the space of quantum states.

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Almost every contemporary researcher whose field of study is in some way related to information theory has attempted to formulate an answer to the question: how has modern science evolved in response to information? Several recent theoretical discoveries appear to imply that the search for solutions will place an increasing emphasis on the comprehension of the geometrical features of information theory.

Information Theory

One of the best instances of scientific cross-fertilization in contemporary times is the interaction between Differential Geometry, Mathematical Statistics, Probability Theory, and Quantum Mechanics that has led to the discipline of classical and quantum information geometry. In its contemporary, coordinate-free formulation, differential geometry's potent language serves as the ideal instrument for grasping complex conceptual ideas while also enabling the presentation of explicit computations in a tidy and elegant manner.

In order to create methods of utilizing quantum systems, whether to carry out computing or to perform specific tasks, it is essential to comprehend the physical basis of quantum information. In many-body quantum dynamics and quantum computation, the phenomena of entanglement and decoherence, in particular, are crucial.

Quantum Information Geometry

It makes sense to discuss the geometry of information because, in a broader sense, probability distribution can be thought of as a measure of information. Quantum information geometry is described as the examination of density matrices defined on the state space of a quantum system rather than classical probability distributions.

Quantum information geometry is a powerful formulation that enables the comprehension of the intricate relationships between many different areas. The geometrical structure of the state space is consistent with the classification of topologically ordered phases, scaling exponents of classical, quantum, and dynamical phase transitions, design of sensors that go beyond classical limits, anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, and quantification of resources for information processing tasks.

Understanding the distinctions between fluctuations in a system regulated by classical physics and those in a system governed by quantum mechanics, as well as the many ramifications of this distinction in many-body systems, is the driving force behind the formulation of quantum information geometry.

The paradox of quantum physics is that even a single particle undergoing the most basic dynamics is vulnerable to persistent, irreversible fluctuations at the time-energy scales of Planck's constant. The quantum state space is defined by a unit norm vector in Hilbert space known as the wavefunction. This is different from the explicit definition of a point in phase space where degrees of freedom allow for, in theory, to perform measurements.

All the logic from classical information geometry may be used if it is acknowledged that the state of a quantum system is supplied by a vector in Hilbert space rather than by an entire set of observable values.

Each coordinate in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space is represented by a complex amplitude. An equivalency connection exists in this space of complex vectors, meaning that vectors that are complex multiples of one another correlate with the same physical condition.

The key lesson is that the manifold of pure states has both a symplectic structure, which provides a sense of dynamism, and a Riemannian structure, which defines a notion of distance.

A mixture of quantum systems is represented by the density matrix since it is realistically very challenging to pinpoint exactly what state a quantum many-body system is in at any particular time.

Like energy, the idea of information may be found in a variety of situations, some of which are more demanding than others. Two closely linked concepts of information theory are typically used in the description of such events. The first is the Shannon information, which appears naturally in communication theory as a quantifier of a communications channel's information capacity. The second is the Fisher information, which measures the accuracy with which an estimate of a parameter representing a random process can be made using the data at hand.

Applications of Quantum Information Geometry

The physical significance of the quantum state space's geometrical representation can be applied to practical many-body systems. For example, quantum information geometry can be used to distinguish between the classical and quantum fluctuations in a given system by clearly decomposing the covariance between two operators.

The explicit connection between multipartite entanglement and the geometrical structure of quantum state space is one of the most important features of Quantum Fisher Information and Entanglement (QFIM). There may be an explicit relationship between the diagonal QFIM components and limits on the degree of multipartite entanglement.

Any parameterization of the state space is subject to the geometrical structure of the Hilbert space. When that parameterization is created by taking into account the Hamiltonian's ground state, which is of particular physical interest, the QFIM is referred to as the fidelity susceptibility.

Outlook

The processing, storing, and transmission of quantum information between a system and its surroundings may be better understood using quantum geometry.

Understanding quantum information and its function in physics requires in-depth investigation. Although there are still many unsolved issues in this fascinating topic, the formalism of techniques that exploit quantum information processes is positioned to reveal hitherto unrecognized insights.

More from AZoM: Looking at Quantum Chaos and Random Matrix Theory

References and Further Reading

Lambert, J., and E. S. Sørensen. "From Classical to Quantum Information Geometry, an Introductory Guide." arXiv preprint arXiv:2302.13515 (2023).

Ciaglia, Florio M., Stefano Mancini, and M. Ha Quang. "Focus point: classical and quantum information geometry." The European Physical Journal Plus 136, no. 5 (2021): 556.

​​KARKADA, DHRUVA. "Geometric Quantum Information Theory." https://london.physics.ucdavis.edu/~reu/REU20/Papers/karkadapaper.pdf

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Written by

Ilamaran Sivarajah

Ilamaran Sivarajah is an experimental atomic/molecular/optical physicist by training who works at the interface of quantum technology and business development.

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